My vision of leadership

At this stage in your studies of business and leadership, what type of leader do you believe you are or would like to become?  How ready are you to lead others? 

This blog will offer a general overview of leadership which can be based on the previous four blogs. Through 10 weeks learning of the leadership module, I have an inclusive understanding of how effective leadership can be crucial. Also, a discussion on the feedback I have received from my colleagues over the course of my MBA helped in developing my skills to have a good platform to start a career in the oil and gas industry.


My Vision & understanding of effective leadership

Knowing quite well how leaders play a strong role in the direction to which an organisation heading, it is important they bear the responsibilities towards a successful environment to point out the vision to the company and its employees. Such leaders are generally transformational in nature in a way that they meet and set the desired objectives by motivating and inspiring the subordinates.

Typically, ethical leadership is a vital component as these ethics can be the determining factor of gaining trust and commitment from the subordinates (Mihelic et al. 2010). In instances where leaders are not being ethical, the people happen to lose faith in them as well as showing little or no interest in what they address. Basically, leadership is not only restricted to having the skills only but also a process of constant communication within the organisation (Schyns et al. 2011).

Similarly, I find inspiration from a form of dynamic transformational leadership. Leaders with such traits have the skill to nurture and building their subordinates into successful individuals (Horwitch and Whipple, 2014). These leaders are usually important in balancing the gap between what a person might be and what he inspires to become (Mihelic et al. 2010).

Nelson Mandela, through his inspirational leadership helped me build on the understanding of what an effective leadership is. Mandela’s biggest achievement was fighting against racism at a time when South Africa was going through a strict system and a violent racial isolation (Pearce, 2013).

Figure 1: Nelson Mandela

In the end we must remember

(Source: Inspirational think tank, 2016)

As he wrote, “In the end we must remember that no number of rules or their enforcement will defeat those who struggle with justice on their side”. Admirably, Mandela’s personality was being able to encourage and inspire a whole nation to move past the activities that happened in the past and keeping a togetherness. Another great quality Mandela had was being able to forgive people and making peace with them. This great quality won him a Noble peace prize in 1993 (Adams, 2013).

During this module, I have acquired an understanding of various theories and models which have assisted me in having a good knowledge of analysing my leadership skills. Belbin’s team role model, Hofstede model and Tuckman’s models have helped me in gaining a useful information of leadership. Through these theories models, I analysed my strengths and weaknesses by differentiating between the various kinds of leaders.

Furthermore, from group work sessions, I could lead my group members and this inspired me to do well in becoming a true leader. Based on the feedbacks gotten from peers, working under pressure and delivering a good team result helped me understand these leadership qualities. My strong commitment of concentrating on the goals at hand and trying not to lose focus helped me in overcoming and cutting any communication barriers.

However, there are areas I need to develop over the period of my MBA. Motivating and encouraging my peers is what I need to develop as it evident that great leaders motivate their team members towards achieving their goals. Great leaders always take advantage of opportunities to develop their weaknesses.

Equally, rather than maintaining a certain leadership style, I will like to be able to change my leadership style to adapt to different situations. As evidenced in the real-life example of Ricardo Semler, he switched his leadership style to suit the situation at Semco company by implementing his values for the better growth of the company. It is essential for a leader to be aware of the concerns and growing issues to build an organisation that can face the can face the changing situations (Vigoda-Gadot and Beeri, 2012).



Adams, S. (2013) ‘Nelson Mandela: A Great Leader Dies’. Available at:  [22 March 2017]

Horwitch, M. and Whipple, M. (2014) Bain & Company. Leaders who inspire: A 21st century approach to developing your talent.

Mihelic, K., Lipicnik, B. and Tekavic, M. (2010) International Journal of Management & Information Systems: Ethical Leadership, (14)5.

Pearce, N. (2013) ‘The Leadership Lessons of Nelson Mandela’. Bloomberg business week. Available at:  [23 March 2017].

Vigoda-Gadot, E. and Beeri, I. (2012) Change-oriented organizational citizenship behaviour in public administration: The power of leadership and the cost of organisational politics. Journal of Public Administration Research Theory, vol. 22, no.3, pp 573-596.



Leadership and change


Mullins’ statement can be certainly true as change is a vital component in today’s management world most especially the business world. Mostly, organisations who find it hard to adapt to changes usually decline at the expense of other organisations who can adapt to these changes. For example, Nokia was faced with challenges when they failed to understand the software development and underrated the emergence of smartphones (Surowiecki, 2013).

In the blog, we can see models and theories of Burns, Lewin, Kotter and Mueller-Eberstein which contradict Mullins’ argument that stated “there is little management can do about change”. These models showed change can be manageable as well as be an important skill leaders must attain.

Different theories serve as evidences to the fact that change can certainly be managed. In 1951, Kurt Lewin proposed the 3-step change model in which he believed behaviour can be viewed as a dynamic equilibrium of forces which work in opposing directions. These driving forces push employees in the desired path to ease change (Robbins, 2003).

Figure 1: Lewin’s 3-step change model


(Source: SlideShare, 2012)

The first step in the process of change is to unfreeze the current situation. Fundamentally, this could be done by either increasing the driving forces that may influence behaviour away from existing situation, decreasing the restricting forces which may be of negative effect to the equilibrium or find a mixture of the two methods (Burnes, 2004).

The second step of Lewin’s 3-step change model is transition which could be done by persuading the employees to agree to the process, work together to achieve the quest for new information and connect the views of the employees to respected leaders in support of the change (Robbins, 2003).

The third step of Lewin’s model is refreezing which needs to be in effect just as the change is being employed to sustain this change over time. The main essence of the third step is to maintain the level of change by balancing both the restraining and driving factors (Robbins, 2003). Therefore, Lewin’s model demonstrates how the effects of forces can be the difference in promoting or hindering change.

Likewise, other models which determine how people may respond to change are the Burns’ model (2009) and Schlossberg’s model (cited by Mueller-Eberstein in 2012).

Figure 2: Burns’ and Schlossberg’s models


(Source: SlideShare 2015)

Fundamentally, the Burn’s and Schlossberg’s methods are almost of the same application. As Mueller-Eberstein noted in 2014, people believe that things don’t need to change as they may experience an “emotional roller-coaster when they are challenged with radical transformation”.

Figure 3: Lead and be the change


(Source: YouTube, 2012)

More so, to manage change leaders and managers must understand the motive to which their employees are resisting these changes. Mueller-Eberstein (2014) believed that leaders need to manage some certain factors to overcome the resistance highlighting clear vision to be the most vital factor. He further clarified that leaders must have a clear and positive vision as “80% of all change management projects mostly fail because they don’t have a clear vision” (Mueller-Eberstein, 2014).

Furthermore, Kotter formulated an 8-step process model in 1996 which is essential in achieving a successful change. Kotter International further modernised the model in 2014 as seen in figure 4 below.

Figure 4: Kotter’s 8-step process model

8steps kotterinternational 2014

(Source: Kotter International, 2014)

Looking at both Kotter’s and Mueller-Eberstein’s models, leaders can take certain actions to accomplish change and be of help to their subordinates during the process of change. Mullins’ statement that “there is little management can do about resistance to change” can be contradicted after combining the steps from the models discussed above as well as recognizing why people are resisting the changes.

A successful change can be referred to the case of Ron Williams and Aetna. Williams helped re-established Aetna from a company that was crashing out and hovering towards failing as an organisation into one of the leading diversified and largest healthcare benefits company in the world (MIT, 2008).

            Figure 5: Ron Williams of Aetna company

blackenterprise 09

(Source: Black enterprise, 2009)

Ron Williams based his emphasis on changing the culture at Aetna as he used his values to introduce the Aetna way. People who make use of services at the company were the main centre of focus in what is happening at the organisation. The employees in turn proved that they were in support of these values as surveys showed an increase in the level to which they were pleased to work with the company (MIT, 2008). Ron Williams rejuvenated the organisation through continuous implementation of his values and leading the employees through a difficult period of change.

To conclude, by looking at the different models and theories discussed earlier, leaders can gain the necessary skills required to manage change within the organisation. By using the models, the leaders can help subordinates overcome their resistance to change by finding out the reason to which the employees are resisting, setting a clear vision and frequently communicating with the employees.



Burnes, B. (2003) ‘Kurt Lewin and the planned approach to change: A Re appraisal’ Journal of Management Studies. Vol. 41, 977-1002.

Burns, D. (2009) ‘Clinical leadership for general practice nurses, 3: leadership mechanisms’ Practice Nursing 20 (12), 622-625.

Kotter International (2014) The 8-Step Process for leading change. Available at:  [15 March 2017]

Kotter, J. (1996) Leading Change, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

MIT (2008) Leading Change: A Conversation with Ron Williams. Available at:  [18 March 2017]

Mueller-Eberstein, M. (2014) Why is change so hard? Lead and be the change in 5 simple steps. Available at:  [19 March 2017]

Mullins, L.J. (2010) Management and Organisational Behaviour, 9th Edition, Harlow: Pearson Higher Education.

Robbins, S. (2003) Organisational Behaviour, 10th edn. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Surowiecki, J. (2013) Where Nokia Went Wrong. Available at:  [16 March 2017]







Most effective Leadership & Management Styles & approaches

“Which personal style should managers adopt to ensure success? What is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates? These questions have been extensively researched and debated over the last century and while the consensus has moved away from ‘command and control’ management and leadership towards more consultative and participative approaches, there is no single ideal; as the best approach, may vary per circumstances and individual characteristics (CMI, 2013)”.


It is hard to say which of the management styles is more efficient as they vary from one another. The difference between leadership and management has resulted in an on-going debate over the years. The two approaches may have a different importance but also a common feature of which should do managing people. However, both management and leadership are involved in the leading positions in organisations which are designed at accomplishing individual and organisational success (Maccoby, 2000). Per Rost (1991), management involves the authority relationships between managers and the team while leadership is dependent on the multidirectional influence relationship between the leader and the group. Rost also suggested that managers may be good leaders only if they are influential.

Figure 1: Management and mismanagement styles


(Source: YouTube 2010)


Mostly, the similarity between leadership and management is clear enough (Northouse, 2013). Both approaches involve influence, how to work with people and the effective accomplishment of goals. Kotter (1990) and other scholars also proposed that both leadership and management are diverse concepts. Basically, managing means accomplishing activities and routines being mastered whereas leading involves influencing others to make a vision for transformation. Bennis and Nanus (1985) quoted that “managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing”.

Figure 2: Fayol’s functions of management


(Source: toolhero 2014)

The principle functions of management which was proposed by Fayol in 1916, were planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. Nevertheless, these functions have resulted in disagreements over the years for describing managerial work (Stephen et al. 1984). These functions which have been described as ‘folklore’ specified that formulations are not necessarily dependent on the research work (Mintzberg, 1975). Even though the Fayol functions can be implemented in some organisations, rapid variations in the 21st century will be a stumbling block. These factors may be participation of employees, decision making and absence of attention concerned with sensitivity of human needs.

Figure 3: Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership theory


(Source: Project management skills, 2010)

Consequently, the situational approach in my opinion is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates. Hersey and Blanchard (in 1969) established this approach based on the 3-D management style theory proposed by Reddin (in 1967). This model stresses that both directive and supportive dimensions are necessary in leadership. It recommended that leaders should be considerate on the level to which they are directive or supportive to meet the varying needs of subordinates. The situational leadership approach suggests that leaders balance their management style to the capability and obligation of the subordinates.

Therefore, it is essential for organisations to know that both good management and leadership styles contribute to their long-term success. Based on the discussion about the different managerial and leadership styles, it can be said that no style is perfectly suitable. Yet, the styles or approaches may be effective depending on the situation. The most effective style is largely reliant on communication between the employees, the situation of the work and the behaviour of manager (Pride et a. 2014).

As suggested by the Chartered Management Institute (CMI) in 2013, there is no single best approach to managing teams. In agreement to the statement, an effective leader should be able to identify the wants of his employees and try to adjust his leadership style to meet the needs of the employees.


(Source: Rigzone, 2014)

An example of a leader who leads his subordinates well is the CEO of Shell Ben Van Beurden, who led by combining both authoritative and democratic system. Van Beurden prevented the company from possible financial losses and ensured a 5% annual net profit largely because of his broad knowledge about the oil industry. Employees in Shell regard him highly for his part in keeping a positive subordinates’ atmosphere within the company by participating greatly in the company’s activities (Rigzone, 2014). As a team member, I will prefer this democratic management style where the leaders take care of the employees.

However, there are also instances where bad leadership resulted in a negative impact. One example of bad leadership is in the fuel explosion of Williams Companies in 1986 when basic safety standards were not adhered to due to bad management (Industry Tap, 2013).

In conclusion, it is recommended that managers use the knowledge of leadership to produce better results. This could be done by establishing a good relationship with the employees, giving credit to employees when deserved, accepting feedbacks and using their unique styles for the overall good of the organisation.



  1. Bennis, W.G., and Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New York: Harper and Row.
  2. CMI Annual Report and Accounts (2013) Chartered Management Institute. [9 February 2017].
  3. Fayol, H. (1916) General and industrial management. London: Pitman.
  4. Industry Tap (2013) Five chemical plant explosions, the causes and how to avoid future disasters. Available at: [8 February 2017].
  5. Kotter, J.P. (1990) A force for change: How leadership differs from management. New York: Free press.
  6. Maccoby, M. (2000) Understanding the difference between management and leadership, Research Technology Management. Volume 43. No 1. Pp 57-59.
  7. Mintzberg, H. (1975) ‘Managers job: Folklore and fact’. Harvard Business Review. Vol. 53. Pp 49-61.
  8. Northouse, G.P. (2013) Leadership: ‘Theory and practice’. 6th SAGE Publications Ltd.
  9. Pride, W., Hughes, R. and Kapoor, J. (2014) Business 12th Cengage learning.
  10. Reddin, W.J. (1967) The 3-D management style theory. Training and development journal, pp. 8-17.
  11. Rigzone (2014) A sharper focus on the bottom line: Interview with Shell’s Ben Van Beurden. Available at: [20 February 2017].
  12. Rost, J.C. (1991) Leadership for the twenty-first century. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  13. Stephen, J., and Dennis, J. (1984) The classical management functions: Are they really outdated? Available at: [27 February 2017].

The challenge of managing diverse teams

“Research has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better results, provided they are well led. The ability to bring together people from different backgrounds, disciplines, cultures, and generations and leverage all they have to offer, therefore, is a must-have for leaders” (Ibarra and Hansen 2011: 71).

Diversity in workplaces brings together a variety of people in the organisation from different races, gender, ethnic groups, intellectual style and organisational function. Research has shown diverse teams produce better results provided they are led well (Ibarra and Hansen, 2011).

Bruce Tuckman in 1965 identified and proposed four stages of development a diverse team experiences. He suggested these teams should go through all the stages from the least unproductive stage to the independent stage. Nevertheless, it is unlikely for teams to reach the creative stage without addressing and solving the issues of processes as well as feelings within the team (Nestor, 2013).

Figure 1: Tuckman’s team development model

souce wheat on college 2012.png

(Source: Wheat on college 2012)

In the initial forming stage, the team members are introduced to each other and they try to get familiar with the projects at hand and discuss the objectives. It is significant for the leader to provide a clear direction in respect to the project as well as guiding the team to work together (Abudi, 2010).

As the diverse teams start to understand their roles they begin to contest with each other for acceptance and coming to terms with their ideas. This storming stage is inevitable as every team must go through this phase as part of developing as a team. However, with the guidance of the leader the team begin to learn how to solve issues together and work better independently (Abudi, 2010).

Furthermore, as the team begin to work well and reach an agreement about shared values, the norming stage starts to come in place. As the team share a leadership responsibility, the leader begins to step back a little to allow the team contribute fully on their own. However, the team should avoid being complacent and concentrate on achieving the main objectives (Ford, 2009).

More so, not all teams will reach the performing stage. In most cases, this could be due to lack of communication, the failure to come to terms with the different backgrounds of team members and a struggle of building a strong relationship (Klein, 2016).

Knowing that some groups are quite rigid when forming teams, they use the team role theories to form the best performing teams. In 1981, Meredith Belbin proposed a team role theory in which behaviours of individuals may determine the performance of a team. Belbin also suggested that every person may seem to prefer a team role or two when they behave naturally in a team. However, in instances of having more than one natural role, one can switch roles to fill a different part in a team having gained the useful knowledge (Mackecknie, 2017).

Figure 2: Belbin team role model

belbin nine

(Source: Slideshare, 2016).

The Belbin model is an important tool in diverse teams that determines whether the team will succeed or not just by getting familiar with the combination of roles within the group. In a progressively complex and information rich world, the value of teamwork is rising in significance. However, there is a possibility of teams becoming catalysts of communication breakdowns, uncertain restrictions of roles and people carrying out the wrong roles.

Figure 3: What are team roles

what are team roles

(Source: YouTube, 2014)


These diverse teams may have some limitations as the individuals struggle to come to terms in relation to trust and connecting to people from different backgrounds. In the long run, this lack of understanding can in most cases result to tension, a lack of teamwork and poor communication which can destabilise the performance of the team (Klein, 2016).

A real-life example of managing diverse teams is in the multilingual organisations which could bring about communication hitches in the work place (Ray, 2014). Nevertheless, a good manager will always make the most of the opportunity to access multicultural markets using the multilingual teams.

In the oil and gas industry, few number of engineers work alone as the projects usually require large teams due to the complication of the work. Generally, researches have shown that diverse teams produce the best solutions in which members from different generations, different backgrounds and approaches create solutions to problems that cannot be developed individually (Society for petroleum engineers, 2017).

(Source: Slideshare, 2013)

Having looked at how diversity in organisations is of importance in maximising performances, these organisations can look at ways to solve the challenges of managing these diversity issues. A host of demographic and non-demographic differences should be well-thought-out when building teams to improve the performances. The likelihood of conflicts within the organisation can be reduced by a strong team identity (Jehn and Bezrukova, 2010). Similarly, team performance can be enhanced when the group have a similar mental model (Bossche et al. 2011).

To perform at a top capacity, team members must be willing to set aside differences as well as respecting the individuality of one another (Nafukho, 2008). These teams can reach a more cultured understanding, a better exploration of ideas and consideration of matters by reconciliation of the differences which in the long run will boost performances.

Great leaders don’t only recognise the value of diversity but also actively seek it and embrace it.



Abudi, G. (2010), The Five Stages of Project Team Development. Available at  [9 February 2017]

Ibarra, H, & Hansen, M (2011), ‘Are You a Collaborative Leader?’ Harvard Business Review [online], 89, 7/8, pp. 68-74

Jehn, K. and Bezrukova, K. (2010), “The faultline activation process and the effects of activated faultlines on coalition formation, conflict and group outcomes”, Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 112 No. 1, pp. 24-42

Klein, K. (2016) Culturally Diverse Teams That Work. Available at: [9 February 2016]

Mackechnie, P. (2003) Management Teams – Why They Succeed or Fail-Second Edition 2003) Available at: [8 February 2017].

Nafukho, F. (2008), “Consensus building, dialogue and spirituality principles of the learning organization paradigm: implications for Kenya’s public service reform agenda”, Journal of Third World Studies, Vol. 25 No. 2, pp. 153-75.

Nestor, R. (2013) The Five Stages of Project Team Development. Studies vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 419-27. [8 February 2017]

Society for petroleum engineers (2017) Why diversity is crucial for success, Available at: [10 February 2017].

Ray, L. (2014) What Are Some Typical Examples of Cultural Diversity in Work Force? [online] available from < > [4 March 2016]

Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W.H., Segers, M., Woltjer, G. & Kirschner, P. (2011) Team learning: building shared mental models’, Instructional Science, Vol. 39 No. 3, pp. 283-301. 

Leadership and ethics


Ethical Leadership is defined as “the demonstration of normative appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-making”… [and] the evidence suggests that ethical leader behaviour can have important positive effects on both individual and organisational effectiveness” (Rubin et al 2010: 216-17).

Yukl (2010) explained leadership as the means of persuading other individuals to realise and be of the same opinion about what shall to be carried out and how to go about it, and aid individual and combined efforts to achieve a mutual goal. This brings about the ever-increasing significance of good leadership which cannot be detached from the performance of groups and valuable building of a team (Mullins 2016).

As leaders have the future in mind, to get assistance from others, leaders should connect with others (Radcliffe 2010). This is a reason why leadership is correlated with inspiration and interpersonal conduct (Adair 2006). A leader motivates others and he can build teams because others value his ideas and they are willing to be in support of him (Adair 2003). Ethical leaders build on the platform of truthfulness and are determined through character and capability (Donlevy and Walker 2011).

In general, the study of ethics consists of examining questions about virtues, duties, commitments, rights, integrity, equality, and accountability in human relationships with each other and other living things. Ethical leadership in general requires a broad perception. For instance, in business, ethical reflections of a problem often go hand in hand with taking a long-term perception of a problem and the long-term interests of an organisation (Ciulla, 2014).

Figure 1: Kant’s Deontological and teleological/consequentialist ethics


(Source: Kaplan Financial Knowledge Bank, 2012)

Fundamentally, two principle schools of ethics will be referenced. The deontological approach is focused on the rightness and wrongness of actions as opposed to the other principle, the consequential approach which depends on the consequences of the actions from the rightness and wrongness (Mastin, 2008). In contrast, deontology is a normative theory to which decisions are required morally, forbidden or permitted. Basically, within the area of moral theories which our choices are measured, deontologists usually are in opposition to the consequentialists (Alexander and Moore, 2016).  Consequentialists on the other hand, hold that acts or intentions are to be morally determined by the extent to which they lead to situations.

The deontological approach does have some advantages over the consequential approach. The deontological morality agrees more with conventional notions of our moral duties and tries to avoid the overly demanding aspects of consequentialism (Alexander and Moore, 2016). Additionally, deontological theories have the potential to explain why certain people have a moral standing to lay out complains and hold to account those who violate moral duties.

Nevertheless, the deontological theory does have its limitation with the most evident one being the irrationality of having duties and permissions to make the world morally worse.

Ethical and unethical leadership behaviours

The knowledge of ethics and ethical decision making has become very vital in organisations and in the organisational leaders. Ethics have proved to be an important component for an effective leadership that will have an impact on the ethical climates and ethical behaviour as well. One important aspect to which leaders may influence their followers is through the motivations the followers use to regulate their own behaviours (Palmer, 2016).

Furthermore, social interactions between individuals determine how they will be familiar with moral issues, make moral judgements and establish a rationale to behave ethically. Behaviours are learnt by observing actions of others and the consequences to these actions which may have an influence on the follower ethical behaviour through modelling. Citing the role leaders as role models, they may also be modelled as influential towards an ethical behaviour (Palmer, 2016).

Figure 2: Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela death

(Source: Huffington Post, 2013)

One of the ethical leaders of all time, Nelson Mandela inspired different set of people from individuals to political leaders as well. By just ordinary human actions, Mandela stirred his followers and the rest of the world through some good qualities of great leadership which are ethical (Kalungu-Banda, 2006). As a leader with a lot of commendable traits, self reflective and deeply moral Mandela had a positive impact on the behaviour of individuals and organisations. Overall, Mandela was a leader who clearly believed in what is right and good (Northouse, 2011).

Then again, unethical leadership culture which is the alternative to ethical leadership can be linked to the trading scandal at Salomon Brothers under the leadership of John Gutfreund. John Gutfreund demonstrated a lack of ethical leadership as he failed to convey and implement values to institute appropriate policies in the organisation (Barringer et al., 2012). The culture at Salomon Brothers had some faults which made unethical and illegal actions to look okay.

To end with, managers can use the knowledge of effective ethical behaviour to produce better results. Organisations with a commendable ethical culture can still improve the attitudes of employees and come up with ways to deal with decision making (Bianca, 2017). Setting an example for your followers will be key to changing the employee attitudes and behaviours as they are looking to how well the manager will put into effect the expectations using good code of ethics. Employees are likely to justify trust if they have an ethical code and power over the outcome of their work.



Adair, J. (1979) Action-Centred Leadership. Gower Press. Cited in Mullins, L. J. (2016) [2 February, 2017].

Adair, J. (2003) Concise Adair on leadership. London: Thorogood publishing Ltd [1 February, 2017].

Adair, J. (2006) Leadership and Motivation, London: Kogan Page. [3 February, 2017].

Ciulla, J. B. (2014) Ethics, the heart of leadership, 3rd edition. Available at: [3 February, 2017].

Demirtas, O. and Akdogan, A.A. (2014) ‘The effect of ethical leadership behaviour on ethical, turnover intention and affective commitment’. Journal of Business Ethics, 130(1). pp. 59-67. [4 February, 2017].

Digesh, P. and Pawar, V. (2014) ‘Styles of leadership’. International Journal of Research in all Subjects in Multi Languages. 2(7). [4 February, 2017].

Donlevy, J.K. and Walker, K.D. (2011) ‘Leadership and ethics’. in Working Through Ethics in Education and Leadership. Springer Nature, pp. 9-20. [5 February, 2017].

Mullins, L.J. (2016) Management & Organisational Behaviour. Eleventh edition. Harlow: Pearson. [8 February 2017].

Radcliffe, S. (2010) Leadership: Plain and Simple. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. [8 February 2017].

Yukl, G.A. (2010) Leadership in Organisations. 7th edn. Harlow: Pearson Education. [8 February 2017].